Category Archives: Landscape Design

Reseed Your Way to a Lusher Garden

 

Agastaches, such as Sonoran sunset (left) and sunset hyssop, reseed in some gardens, but not in others. The seedlings seem to spread more prolifically on bare ground or in sparsely mulched areas.

Do you have what it takes to grow self-seeding plants? Maybe, if you don’t mind seedlings popping up here and there, and you have the guts to destroy plants that turn thuggish. Because let’s face it–reseeders aren’t for everyone.

But for budget-conscious gardeners, self-sowing can offer an inexpensive way to fill gaps in a garden or cover large chunks of real estate in a hurry.

Let’s say you want to create a cottage garden in your back yard, but you’re concerned that self-sowers will crowd out your existing plants. You can select gently reseeding annuals and perennials.

The trick to successful reseeding is being able to recognize seedlings so you don’t mistake them for weeds and kill them. Study the leaf structure of mature plants, then compare it to that of the seedlings. The seedlings with long, slender leaves on the right and in the rear are sunset agastache. The plants to the left, with broader leaves, are Sonoran sunset agastache. Notice the tiny plant just sprouting at the far right? It’s another Sonoran sunset agastache.

Well-behaved annuals include sunflowers, pansies and sweet alyssum. As for polite perennials, consider low-growing bloody cranesbill with its bright fuchsia blooms; lady’s mantle with its fluffy lime-green clusters; or cupid’s dart with its purplish-blue flowers resembling bachelor buttons. You can also choose English lavender, bleeding heart, lupine, purple coneflower, chocolate flower, penstemon or agastache, as well as biennial snapdragon.

If you’re more interested in populating a large, sun-scorched area to prevent weeds, pick seedy characters that spread quickly. Aggressive annuals, such as California poppies, larkspur, bachelor buttons, cosmos and blue flax will sprout in your yard for years to come. You can also toss in a few strong-willed perennials, such as hardy four o’clock, with its deep-pink trumpet-shaped blooms and mint-green leaves; globe thistle with its architectural growth habit and spiky blue flowers; and knautia with its burgundy, pincushion-shaped flowers on long stems.

Broadleaf weeds or desirable perennials? These are baby soapworts, which can spread 24 to 36 inches wide and produce masses of pink flowers in spring.

Other quick spreaders include prairie winecups, Jupiter’s beard, Mount Atlas daisy, catmint, yarrow, hollyhock, rose campion, soapwort, and salvias such as May night. And don’t forget ornamental grasses, such as Mexican feather grass and little bluestem.

In the vegetable garden, lettuce is notorious for producing babies if you allow the plant to go to seed. You may also find volunteer tomatoes, spinach and purple mustard.

Check around your compost pile, too, for baby cantaloupes and other squashes that may have sprouted from seeds of decomposed parent plants. You’ll need to protect these little ones from the cold in early spring, but you can transplant them to your garden once the weather warms up.

Chives, both common and garlic, can reseed to the point of weediness in the garden. So can dill. Other self-sowing herbs are culinary sage, cilantro, some sorrels, catnip, oregano, borage, calendula, parsley and chamomile.

If you eventually discover that you have too much of a good thing, you can discourage reseeding by deadheading or yanking plants before they go to seed.

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Every Yard Needs a Berry Patch 

Chester began popping out flowers in early July. Now they’re turning into blackberries.

Chester’s pregnant!  After 22 months in the ground, my Chester dwarf blackberry is producing small pink flowers and baby berries.  I spotted this hardy, thornless darling at the Labor Day sale at Fort Collins Nursery in September 2017, bought it, and promptly stuck it in the ground.  Chester didn’t produce any berries during the summer of 2018.  But this year, he looks very promising.

Chester (Rubus fruticosus ‘Chester’) reportedly grows three to five feet high and wide.  Mine has reached five feet high by two feet wide, growing on a trellis.  However, I’ve pruned the tallest canes back to three feet.

Chester and his new friends hang out in the garden. He’s on the trellis. Strawberries are in front. Bright lights Swiss chard and winecraft black smoke bush are on his left. Zucchini is behind him on the right. If he doesn’t play well with others, I’ll relocate him.

Although Chester is a perennial, his canes are biennial.  For best performance, stake the canes.

According to the Missouri Botanical Garden, you should tip-prune new non-fruiting canes on established plants in the summer.  Then immediately after harvest, cut down all canes that fruited.  Finally, in late winter or early spring, prune away damaged canes and thin your way down to four or five well-spaced canes, trimming their laterals.

I should mention that it’s advisable to seal the tips of your pruned canes with carpenter’s wood glue to discourage borers.

I also note that one respected Denver garden center claims that Chester doesn’t play well with others.  He’s surrounded by strawberries, Swiss chard, cucumbers and zucchini in my berry/vegetable patch.  I’ll see what happens.  If he misbehaves, I’ll relocate him for a time out.

Chester isn’t my only berry provider.  I also grow the strawberries mentioned earlier—both June-bearing and ever-bearing.  My June bearer produced fruit through early July.  Now the ever-bearers are picking up the slack, generating white blooms that will soon turn into even more berries.

My June bearer is Honeoye, and my ever bearers are Ogallala, Quinalt, and Fort Laramie.

Besides providing fruit, strawberries help keep weeds down by serving as a lush, dense groundcover.

I like strawberries not only for their fruit, but because they make such lush, perky groundcovers.

Then there are the serviceberries from my regent and autumn brilliance varieties.  Yes, serviceberries are edible by humans.  They taste somewhat like blueberries and are great for snacking, mixing with other fruits, or tossing into salads.

Some gardeners avoid growing berries because birds eat so much of the fruit.  I’ve been picking my strawberries and serviceberries before they’re fully ripe and taking them inside to ripen.  I may have to do the same with the blackberries.  Or eventually I may have to break down and install bird netting.

If you have children or grandchildren, be aware that a berry patch can occupy them for hours and provide treasured memories.

Fortunately for us here in Colorado, we have one of the best climates in the country for growing berries.  Just don’t plant blueberries—they like acidic soil.  We have alkaline.

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Cultivate Low-Water Lushness with Drought-Tolerant Groundcovers

Soapwort flows past a boulder where Steve, my tabby, acts as overseer. Directly behind Steve, you can see bonfire euphorbia just starting to bloom with bits of yellow bracts showing. To the left of the soapwort sits Pawnee Buttes sand cherry, and in the center of the background is orange carpet hummingbird, which will burst forth with neon orange flowers in the next week or two.

While traveling through Louisiana years ago, I was amazed by the sheer lushness of the trees, grass and flowers.

Here in Colorado, I rarely spot lush residential landscapes.  What can you expect in such an arid climate?  All the same, I love luxuriant gardens in which plants simply flow into each other.

Most trees and shrubs, by their very nature, offer a degree of lushness, which is why homeowners love them.  But groundcovers can add a whole new level of richness.

I’ve been experimenting with various low-water groundcovers to create a sense of lushness in my Fort Collins landscape.  It has taken about four years to get close to achieving the sumptuousness I’m looking for, but I’m making progress.  I’ve propagated new plants from existing ones to keep costs down.

My goal has been to provide successional bloom; in other words, have something new flowering throughout the season for aesthetics and for pollinators.

Here are plants I’ve used successfully.

Spring bloomers

Woolly speedwell (Veronica pectinata).  One of my all-time favorites, woolly speedwell offers an evergreen carpet for flowering bulbs in early spring.  Then around April or May, small blue blossoms emerge on this ground hugger, creating a spectacle of color that lasts for three or four weeks.  Although drought tolerant, woolly speedwell performs best in part shade with regular watering.   To propagate it, dig up a chunk and move it where you need it.

Bloody cranesbill is one of the toughest groundcovers I’ve ever grown. It thrives in both sun and shade, offering a flush of bright fuchsia flowers in the spring.

Soapwort (Saponaria ocymoides).  This sun-loving, evergreen beauty begins blooming in late spring and continues into early summer with a profusion of perky pink flowers.  There’s a white-flowered soapwort, as well.  Soapwort reseeds prolifically, covering a significant amount of real estate in a short time.  Many web sites claim that soapwort spreads 15 to 18 inches.  Don’t believe it.  Some of my pink bloomers routinely grow 40 inches wide and eight inches high.  If you want to discourage soapwort’s spread, simply pull off the seed heads.

Candytuft (Iberis sempervirens).  Candytuft resembles a wedding bouquet with its profusion of white blooms.  The plant’s attractive deep green leaves keep their color year-round.  This underused plant begins flowering in late spring and extends well into June.  Candytuft will grow about two feet wide.  You can divide it for more plants.

Summer bloomers

Bloody cranesbill (Geranium sanguineum).  An early summer bloomer, bloody cranesbill produces bright fuchsia blooms in both sun and shade.  After its initial flush of flowers, this groundcover will continue to produce occasional blooms throughout the growing season.  It grows about 14 inches high and 36 inches wide, and is extremely drought-tolerant.  Propagate it by division.

Rozanne cranesbill (Geranium ‘Gerwat’ Rozanne).  Rozanne is Bloody’s cousin with bigger, longer-lasting blooms.  In my garden, Rozanne grows about 20 inches high and 36 inches wide, and explodes with two-inch-wide purple blossoms from June till September.  Like bloody cranesbill, Rozanne will grow in both sun and shade, and can be propagated by division.  Although drought-tolerant, Rozanne prefers regular watering.

Sumptuous Rozanne cranesbill provides purple blooms from June till September.

Prairie winecups (Callirhoe involucrata).  This hardy groundcover sends out 30-inch runners loaded with rich magenta goblet-shaped blooms.  Winecups begins blossoming in late May and keeps on going till frost.  The easiest way to propagate prairie winecups is by seed.

Bonfire euphorbia (Euphorbia epithymoides ‘Bonfire’).  I’ve loved this mounding plant ever since spotting it at the Colorado State University perennial trial garden years ago.  Its showy red/orange/purple foliage makes this plant a show-stopper throughout the growing season.  But when it blooms, whoa Mama!  Bonfire’s brilliant yellow bracts grab the attention of passers-by, who often pause and ask questions about the plant.  Although often described as a groundcover that grows 18 inches wide, my four-year-old bonfire is 30 inches wide and 14 inches high.

Meidiland groundcover roses perform spectacularly in the garden, especially in hot, dry areas. This fire meidiland, with its double blooms, is a show-stopper.

Groundcover roses.  My favorite groundcover roses are the meidilands, which come in red, pink, yellow and white.  These ground-hugging, weed-squelching stalwarts thrive in the hottest, driest growing conditions and feature stunning, deeply colored blooms.  I favor fire meidiland, in particular, with its lush double blooms, but have also grown red meidiland successfully.  Another delightful groundcover rose is seafoam, a white variety that grows in the White House rose garden.  My only caveat with white roses is that they’ll turn brown if you grow them in sun that’s too intense.  The roses bloom from June till frost.  Groundcover roses are easy to propagate by simple layering.

Hardy plumbago (Ceratostigma plumbaginoides).  This gorgeous plant will grow in sun or shade.  I like growing it under trees.  It’s drought tolerant, but grows best with regular watering.  In July, plumbago delivers striking gentian blue flowers, followed by lovely copper-colored seed heads.  Then in the fall, the foliage turns red.  Plumbago spreads readily by itself, but you can encourage it by digging up a chunk to plant where you need it.

Fall bloomers

Except for bloody cranesbill and bonfire euphorbia, all of the summer bloomers mentioned above continue flowering through the fall.  Another summer/fall bloomer is orange carpet hummingbird (Zauschneria garrettii).

Groundcovers act as organic mulches that save you time and money you might otherwise spend on wood and rock mulches.  If you haven’t used groundcovers on a large scale, I encourage you to try them.

 

 

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Chihuly on View at Kew

Chihuly’s iconic Summer Sun brightens the walkway in front of the Palm House at Kew Gardens.

During a visit to Kew Gardens near London earlier this month, I was delighted to discover a Reflections on Nature exhibit by renowned American glass artist Dale Chihuly.

Some pieces, such as the iconic Summer Sun and Red Reeds, appeared at Denver Botanic Gardens in 2014.  Those and other familiar pieces showed up at Kew, as well, along with other, newer pieces.

Besides displaying Chihuly’s work among plants, Kew Gardens presented an extensive variety of additional works in its Shirley Sherwood Gallery.

The show runs from April 13 to October 27, 2019.

Chihuly expertly weaves his Green Hornets and Gold Waterdrops sculptures among palm fronds in Kew’s Temperate House.

Blossom-shaped bowls delight visitors at Kew Gardens’ Shirley Sherwood Gallery.

 

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Kick-Ass Plants for Badass Territory

Kick-ass plants can provide color and interest even when they’re not in bloom. In this fall landscape, you’ll see (clockwise from lower left) Genista lydia, fiery Pawnee Buttes sand cherry, Sonoran sunset hyssop, sunset hyssop, blue avena grass, and orange carpet hummingbird.

Unless you’re one of those rare Colorado gardeners with a shady yard, you probably have spots that get blasted by the sun—in other words, badass areas.  And you likely have heavy clay soil, too.

The southwest corner of my front yard is badass.  Besides getting hammered by western and southern sun, the area sits next to a sidewalk, which radiates heat.

So when I designed this space, I selected kick-ass, drought-tolerant plants with fall color and winter interest in mind.  I also wanted most, if not all, of the plants to attract pollinators.  Here are the plants that made the cut.

Around July, these kick-ass plants burst with color, particularly the fuchsia-colored Sonoran sunset hyssop, salmon-and-lavender sunset hyssop, and neon orange carpet hummingbird. The Genista lydia in front erupts in electric yellow flowers in the spring. Pawnee Buttes sand cherry, behind the genista, produces white flowers in the spring. Because of their successional bloom, the plants (other than the blue avena grass) provide nectar to pollinators throughout the growing season.

Lydia broom (Genista lydia). This evergreen, groundcover shrub explodes with electric yellow flowers in the spring.  Its branches are somewhat scruffy, which is probably why you can’t find it in nurseries these days.  However, there’s a new smaller cultivar with more attractive branching:  Lydia bangle broom (Genista lydia ‘Select’).  Bangle grows 12-24 inches high and 18-24 inches wide, and produces the same showy yellow flowers that Genista lydia   I haven’t seen this plant in Fort Collins nurseries yet, but The Tree Farm in Longmont sells it.  So I’m guessing this cultivar will migrate north to local nurseries before long.

Pawnee Buttes sand cherry (Prunus besseyi). In April, this low-growing shrub pumps out fragrant white flowers, followed by black berries in the summer.  In the fall, this plant’s foliage is pure magic, when sunlight catches its fiery red leaves.  Then in winter, Pawnee Buttes’ perky little branches stand at attention.  This shrubby ground cover will reach 15-18 inches high and 4-6 feet wide.  Don’t let its width scare you, though.  Pawnee Buttes responds very well to pruning if you want to keep its width at four feet or so.

Sonoran Sunset hyssop (Agastache cana ‘Sinning’). This herbaceous, woody-based perennial blooms prolifically with fuchsia flowers from early June through October.  Then in late fall, its blooms turn tan, providing winter interest.  Pollinators, especially hummingbirds, love it.  Sonoran Sunset grows 15-18 inches high and 12-15 inches wide.  If you have heavy clay soil, be sure to amend it with compost to improve drainage.  Once this plant is established, don’t overwater it.  I’ve killed a couple that way in a moister part of my yard.

Sunset hyssop (Agastache rupestris). Sunset hyssop features salmon-and-lavender blooms.  It’s taller than Sonoran, reaching 2-4 feet high by 20-30 inches wide.  So I plant it as a backdrop to Sonoran.  Agastache has a reputation for being a short-loved perennial, but all of my sunset hyssops are going into their fourth season.

Orange carpet hummingbird (Zauschneria garrettii). As the common name suggests, this plant is beloved by hummingbirds for its tubular, neon-orange blooms from June to October.  Zauschneria spreads quickly and grows 3-4 inches high by 15-20 wide.  It’s one of those plants you’ll be able to share with neighbors.

Blue oat grass (Helictotrichon sempervirens). It’s not easy to find blue plants for a garden’s color scheme.  That’s one reason I like blue oat (avena) grass so much.  Unlike many ornamental grasses, blue oat grass, doesn’t reseed and take over your yard.  This well-behaved plant delivers arching stalks of airy plumes in early summer, and grows about 2-3 feet high and wide.  This is the only plant in my badass area that doesn’t provide nectar for pollinators.

Cut the hyssops and blue oat grass to the ground in March or April as new growth emerges.

All of these plants offer nearly year-round interest except for orange carpet hummingbird, which dies back in winter.  They also bloom at different times so that pollinators have food sources throughout the growing season.

On April 14, I’ll be offering two short programs on kick-ass plants at the Sustainable Lifestyle Expo at the FirstBank Center in Broomfield, Colorado.  Colorado State University Extension agents, specialists and volunteers will provide research-based demonstrations and talks on more than 30 topics. Expo tickets are $10 for adults.  Admission is free for ages 17 and under.

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Keep Your Flowers Fresher Longer

What’s the #1 longest-lasting cut flower? Zinnia. These pollinator-attracting plants reach about 1 to 4 feet tall and are available in many colors.

With Valentine’s day approaching, many of you may find yourselves with bouquets of fresh flowers.  And others of you may be cutting flowers from your gardens later this year.

Either way, you’ll want to keep those flowers fresh as long as you can.

Guess what’s the most effective method for keeping these lovelies in pristine condition.  Pennies?  No.  Bleach? Unh-unh.  Aspirin, hairspray, vodka, vinegar with sugar?  Not even close.

ProFlowers, the online florist, tested all of the methods above and then some.  The test results indicated these two methods work best:  One, refrigerate your flowers each night; and two, add ¼ cup of soda pop (preferably clear, such as 7-Up) to the vase water.  This reportedly works even better than flower food.

If you pick the flowers yourself, be sure to cut them with a sharp knife or bypass pruners in the morning or early evening rather than during the mid-day heat.  Then insert the stems in clean water right away.

Roses, such as the Fire Meidilands shown here, are stunning in cut-flower arrangements.

Whether you receive flowers as a gift or harvest them yourself, cut the stems at an angle for better water absorption, and remove all leaves below the water line to minimize bacterial growth.

Opinions vary concerning water temperature, but most sources recommend lukewarm water in the vase.  Add more water as needed, and clean the vase every few days.

Keep the flowers away from full sun, fruit, and hot and cold drafts.

Among the longest-lasting cutting flowers are zinnias, carnations, alstroemerias, delphiniums, daisies, peonies and sunflowers.  So plant your garden accordingly for bountiful blooms and durable arrangements.

 

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Unsung Heroes Brighten Winter Landscape

Japanese barberry feeds birds and the soul with its colorful winter berries.

Easy-to-grow plants with winter interest are Japanese barberry, Angelina sedum, creeping and upright Mahonia, color guard yucca, and ornamental grasses.

Yes, I know Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) is somewhat overplanted in Colorado.  But there’s a reason for that.  This sun-loving shrub is extremely hardy.  The birds love the berries, especially in winter.  And people love the berries for their brilliant red color, especially in an otherwise-drab winter landscape.  The Kobold variety even resembles boxwood—a plus for gardeners who love the look of boxwood but don’t want to deal with its inherent problems in Colorado.

Angelina sedum explodes with yellow, orange-red, purple and green foliage in the winter.   This indestructible plant will gradually spread, and babies can be easily transplanted.  In warmer months, the foliage turns chartreuse.

Low-growing Angelina sedum generates explosions of color throughout the garden.

Mahonia aquifolium and Mahonia repens always have something going on.  They hold their leaves year-round, offering deep green foliage in warm months and reddish foliage in winter.  Each spring, Mahonia produces bright yellow flowers, followed by blue berries, which birds love.  Mahonia, like Japanese barberry, is tough and drought-tolerant, but grows best in shade.

Mahonia repens takes on subtle red hues when temperatures turn cold.

Color guard yucca displays yellow-and-green-striped leaves in warm weather.  When winter rolls around, the sword-like foliage becomes even more interesting by adding a bit of coral color to the yellow and green.  I’ve grown this non-patented beauty for about three years and have divided it to propagate three more plants.  The mother plant is 16 inches tall and 24 inches wide.  I’m hoping it’ll flower one of these years.

Hints of coral enhance Color Guard yucca’s yellow and green sword-like leaves in winter.

Ornamental grasses are stalwarts that provide architectural elements in the winter garden.  Don’t cut them back until late February or early March.

Other favorites for the winter garden are Harry Lauder’s walking stick, red twig and yellow twig dogwoods, yews, pines, firs, spruces, junipers and hawthorns.

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